立即打开
榛子供应短缺,却改变了意大利农村的面貌

榛子供应短缺,却改变了意大利农村的面貌

Eric J. Lyman 2021年10月03日
Nutella的生产商费列罗集团消耗的榛子量约占全球总供应量的四分之一。

胖乎乎的农民吉安杜佳(Gianduja)看起来非常和善,身穿巧克力色大衣,戴着三角帽,是一个来自都灵邻近乡村的戏剧角色。他天生就喜欢漂亮女孩、葡萄酒,以及甜品。19世纪初拿破仑战争期间,意大利北部的大多数剧院缩减规模,甚至关停,然而吉安杜佳并没有消失。

在各大战争发生之前,意大利的都灵一直是欧洲的巧克力之都。不过由于法国实行海上封锁,来自南美洲的可可豆变得短缺,导致基本的原材料价格飞涨。大约就在那时,都灵的巧克力甜点师傅开始将供应量有限的可可豆与当地盛产的榛子混合在一起。这种厚厚的糊状物利用两个勺子进行挤压,形状就像巧克力爱好者吉安杜佳头上戴的三角帽一侧,后来就被称为吉安杜佳(巧克力)。

戏剧角色吉安杜佳慢慢地退出舞台,尽管以其名字命名的精致甜食在意大利和远处的特产店铺仍然有少量出售。不过榛子巧克力酱后来风靡全球,你可能知道那就是Nutella。

比帝国大厦还重

有关Nutella的数字令人惊愕。Nutella的制造商费列罗集团(Gruppo Ferrero)消耗的榛子量约占全球总供应量的四分之一。该集团称,Nutella目前销往160个国家,年产量已经超过40万吨,远超帝国大厦(Empire State Building)的重量。费列罗集团每年生产的7.7亿个Nutella包装箱,如果并排放置,可以绕赤道两圈左右。

当然不足为奇的是,这些数字是该集团盈利的一大佐证。去年,费列罗集团的总收入超过123亿欧元(合145亿美元),同比增长8%。全球因为新冠疫情而实行封锁隔离,人们只能够待在家里,Nutella和费列罗其他甜品的销量因此大大见涨。

与此同时,该集团的利润超过2.23亿欧元。同比略有增长。这些数字是基于该集团的整个系列产品,其中还包括旗下的费列罗巧克力、健达(Kinder)巧克力蛋和Tic Tac嘀嗒薄荷糖。不过Nutella当属该集团最成功的产品。

现在全球各地已经解除封锁限制,私人控股集团费列罗正在利用自己的实力进行收购,共斥资6.1亿英磅(合8.4亿美元)收购了英国饼干制造商福克斯饼干(Fox’s Biscuits)和伯顿饼干公司(Burton’s Biscuit Co.)。

但这一成功面临其他困难。Nutella的关键成分有糖、棕榈油、可可和奶粉,虽然榛子的含量只占其13%,但无疑是最难得到的原材料。

土耳其是世界上最大的榛子生产国,但该国因为政治问题和工资低廉、雇佣童工等劳动纠纷问题,使得进口该国榛子的国家可能饱受非议。例如,大受欢迎的意大利民族主义者马泰奥·萨尔维尼曾经多次在社交媒体上称赞Nutella,但他于2019年年末宣布,由于Nutella使用土耳其榛子制作而成,自己不会再购买任何相关产品。

当然,意大利的气候非常适合种植榛子。不过,意大利的榛子年产量在全球榛子供应国中只能屈居第二,远远不足以满足费列罗集团的使用需求。该集团表示,即使供应量足够,由于反垄断法的存在,集团也不可能独自消耗大部分榛子。

意大利的皮埃蒙特朗格地区是榛子的三大主要产区之一,榛子是Nutella巧克力酱的关键原材料。图片来源:Rosmarie Wirz—Getty Images

费列罗集团很快向《财富》杂志透露,自己并不拥有或经营任何榛子种植农场,但它支持的一项名为“意大利榛子项目”(Progetto Nocciola Italia)的倡议遭到了诸多反对。

该倡议听起来会像是让世界各地的Nutella粉丝欣喜若狂的集团采购计划,该集团已经制定了保证榛子可以持续优质产出的种植指导方针,最终目标是将意大利的榛子产量提高三分之一。

但许多农民对这个三年计划持有不同看法。

随着气候变化导致的破坏加剧,世界各地的科学家和自然资源保护者纷纷担心农业产业和最大客户青睐于大规模地种植单一植物,特别是玉米、大豆和大米,还有酿酒葡萄。科学家们担心不仅仅会导致生物多样性缺乏,这种集约化的耕作方式还可能导致自然生态系统退化或生态系统功能衰减。

为表示对费列罗集团意大利榛子项目的抗议,当地农民和政治领导人于去年发表了一封公开指责信,题为《意大利榛子项目?还是算了吧》(Progetto Nocciola Italia? No Grazie)。这封公开信在意大利引起了轩然大波,并被媒体广泛报道。信中提到:“榛子的密集种植”对“环境和生物多样性”来说是一种威胁。更为严重的是,信中指出新的榛子种植区就是“集约化的单一露天矿,对环境影响很大……而且还经常使用杀虫剂、杀菌剂、化肥和除草剂等。”

目光所及,皆是榛子

当然,并非所有的农民都会用如此夸张的语言来谴责这一计划,但毫无疑问,该集团对榛子的贪婪欲望正在影响着意大利的三个主要榛子种植区:罗马以北、都灵以南和那不勒斯以东。那里的农民说,强劲的需求哄抬了土地价格,限制了农业多样性的发展。

卡萨雷·梅卡雷利是住在罗马北部维泰博附近的第三代榛子种植者,他接受《财富》杂志采访时称:“十年前,你还能够看到榛子旁边种着橄榄、葡萄、桃子和栗子,现在一眼望过去,只剩榛子了。”

梅卡雷利拥有一个名为Azienda Agricola Mecarelli的农场,他并不把种植的榛子卖给费列罗集团或任何其他跨国集团,意大利面食制造商巴里拉集团(Barilla)和瑞士巧克力制造商雀巢(Nestlé)等都是该地区的大买主。相反,他主营自己的榛子产品,包括一系列榛子含量为40%至100%的涂抹品。

他补充说,自己30公顷(约75英亩)的农场上还有几棵橄榄树,虽然产的橄榄油仅够家人和朋友使用。梅卡雷利表示,他并不会责怪其他人上赶着去种榛子,毕竟据大多数农学家和农民所知,榛子不容易得病,而且很容易种植。更重要的是,随着时间的推移,榛子价格稳步攀升,市场对优质榛子的需求非常稳定。

但他坦承,大量生产榛子导致的市场扭曲很明显。

梅卡雷利说:“在这里种植其他作物赚不了什么大钱。如果你拔掉几公顷榛子去种别的东西,就算你更努力地干活,赚的钱也没有现在多。”

Via Amerina作物区(包括维泰博周围的榛子产区)的负责人法米亚诺·克鲁恰内利对此态度更为谨慎。他表示,问题源于单一种植和超出自然限制的种植区,其中包括海拔约300至600米(1000至2000英尺)的火山口斜坡。

“榛子本身没有问题。问题在于除榛子之外,没有其他的物种,这样会破坏土地。”他说道,他还将单一种植形容为该地区的定时炸弹。

“如果再这样下去,二三十年后连草都很难长出来。榛子种在离海平面太近的地方也是一个问题,因为榛子需要更多的水和更多的养分才能够茁壮成长。”

克鲁恰内利说:“种植榛子好是好,但我们现在做得太过了。结局显而易见,除非我们采取行动来阻止,不然不会有什么好结果。”

与此同时,在提供给《财富》杂志的一份声明中,费列罗集团为“意大利榛子项目”计划辩护,称其为“农民实现种植多样化和/或重新转型的机会”,也可以“防止非耕种农地被遗弃”。

该集团表示:“我们借助这个项目开发了一种榛子种植方法,其基本原则是创造优质可持续的意大利榛子价值链。”(财富中文网)

译者:三叠瀑

胖乎乎的农民吉安杜佳(Gianduja)看起来非常和善,身穿巧克力色大衣,戴着三角帽,是一个来自都灵邻近乡村的戏剧角色。他天生就喜欢漂亮女孩、葡萄酒,以及甜品。19世纪初拿破仑战争期间,意大利北部的大多数剧院缩减规模,甚至关停,然而吉安杜佳并没有消失。

在各大战争发生之前,意大利的都灵一直是欧洲的巧克力之都。不过由于法国实行海上封锁,来自南美洲的可可豆变得短缺,导致基本的原材料价格飞涨。大约就在那时,都灵的巧克力甜点师傅开始将供应量有限的可可豆与当地盛产的榛子混合在一起。这种厚厚的糊状物利用两个勺子进行挤压,形状就像巧克力爱好者吉安杜佳头上戴的三角帽一侧,后来就被称为吉安杜佳(巧克力)。

戏剧角色吉安杜佳慢慢地退出舞台,尽管以其名字命名的精致甜食在意大利和远处的特产店铺仍然有少量出售。不过榛子巧克力酱后来风靡全球,你可能知道那就是Nutella。

比帝国大厦还重

有关Nutella的数字令人惊愕。Nutella的制造商费列罗集团(Gruppo Ferrero)消耗的榛子量约占全球总供应量的四分之一。该集团称,Nutella目前销往160个国家,年产量已经超过40万吨,远超帝国大厦(Empire State Building)的重量。费列罗集团每年生产的7.7亿个Nutella包装箱,如果并排放置,可以绕赤道两圈左右。

当然不足为奇的是,这些数字是该集团盈利的一大佐证。去年,费列罗集团的总收入超过123亿欧元(合145亿美元),同比增长8%。全球因为新冠疫情而实行封锁隔离,人们只能够待在家里,Nutella和费列罗其他甜品的销量因此大大见涨。

与此同时,该集团的利润超过2.23亿欧元。同比略有增长。这些数字是基于该集团的整个系列产品,其中还包括旗下的费列罗巧克力、健达(Kinder)巧克力蛋和Tic Tac嘀嗒薄荷糖。不过Nutella当属该集团最成功的产品。

现在全球各地已经解除封锁限制,私人控股集团费列罗正在利用自己的实力进行收购,共斥资6.1亿英磅(合8.4亿美元)收购了英国饼干制造商福克斯饼干(Fox’s Biscuits)和伯顿饼干公司(Burton’s Biscuit Co.)。

但这一成功面临其他困难。Nutella的关键成分有糖、棕榈油、可可和奶粉,虽然榛子的含量只占其13%,但无疑是最难得到的原材料。

土耳其是世界上最大的榛子生产国,但该国因为政治问题和工资低廉、雇佣童工等劳动纠纷问题,使得进口该国榛子的国家可能饱受非议。例如,大受欢迎的意大利民族主义者马泰奥·萨尔维尼曾经多次在社交媒体上称赞Nutella,但他于2019年年末宣布,由于Nutella使用土耳其榛子制作而成,自己不会再购买任何相关产品。

当然,意大利的气候非常适合种植榛子。不过,意大利的榛子年产量在全球榛子供应国中只能屈居第二,远远不足以满足费列罗集团的使用需求。该集团表示,即使供应量足够,由于反垄断法的存在,集团也不可能独自消耗大部分榛子。

费列罗集团很快向《财富》杂志透露,自己并不拥有或经营任何榛子种植农场,但它支持的一项名为“意大利榛子项目”(Progetto Nocciola Italia)的倡议遭到了诸多反对。

该倡议听起来会像是让世界各地的Nutella粉丝欣喜若狂的集团采购计划,该集团已经制定了保证榛子可以持续优质产出的种植指导方针,最终目标是将意大利的榛子产量提高三分之一。

但许多农民对这个三年计划持有不同看法。

随着气候变化导致的破坏加剧,世界各地的科学家和自然资源保护者纷纷担心农业产业和最大客户青睐于大规模地种植单一植物,特别是玉米、大豆和大米,还有酿酒葡萄。科学家们担心不仅仅会导致生物多样性缺乏,这种集约化的耕作方式还可能导致自然生态系统退化或生态系统功能衰减。

为表示对费列罗集团意大利榛子项目的抗议,当地农民和政治领导人于去年发表了一封公开指责信,题为《意大利榛子项目?还是算了吧》(Progetto Nocciola Italia? No Grazie)。这封公开信在意大利引起了轩然大波,并被媒体广泛报道。信中提到:“榛子的密集种植”对“环境和生物多样性”来说是一种威胁。更为严重的是,信中指出新的榛子种植区就是“集约化的单一露天矿,对环境影响很大……而且还经常使用杀虫剂、杀菌剂、化肥和除草剂等。”

目光所及,皆是榛子

当然,并非所有的农民都会用如此夸张的语言来谴责这一计划,但毫无疑问,该集团对榛子的贪婪欲望正在影响着意大利的三个主要榛子种植区:罗马以北、都灵以南和那不勒斯以东。那里的农民说,强劲的需求哄抬了土地价格,限制了农业多样性的发展。

卡萨雷·梅卡雷利是住在罗马北部维泰博附近的第三代榛子种植者,他接受《财富》杂志采访时称:“十年前,你还能够看到榛子旁边种着橄榄、葡萄、桃子和栗子,现在一眼望过去,只剩榛子了。”

梅卡雷利拥有一个名为Azienda Agricola Mecarelli的农场,他并不把种植的榛子卖给费列罗集团或任何其他跨国集团,意大利面食制造商巴里拉集团(Barilla)和瑞士巧克力制造商雀巢(Nestlé)等都是该地区的大买主。相反,他主营自己的榛子产品,包括一系列榛子含量为40%至100%的涂抹品。

他补充说,自己30公顷(约75英亩)的农场上还有几棵橄榄树,虽然产的橄榄油仅够家人和朋友使用。梅卡雷利表示,他并不会责怪其他人上赶着去种榛子,毕竟据大多数农学家和农民所知,榛子不容易得病,而且很容易种植。更重要的是,随着时间的推移,榛子价格稳步攀升,市场对优质榛子的需求非常稳定。

但他坦承,大量生产榛子导致的市场扭曲很明显。

梅卡雷利说:“在这里种植其他作物赚不了什么大钱。如果你拔掉几公顷榛子去种别的东西,就算你更努力地干活,赚的钱也没有现在多。”

Via Amerina作物区(包括维泰博周围的榛子产区)的负责人法米亚诺·克鲁恰内利对此态度更为谨慎。他表示,问题源于单一种植和超出自然限制的种植区,其中包括海拔约300至600米(1000至2000英尺)的火山口斜坡。

“榛子本身没有问题。问题在于除榛子之外,没有其他的物种,这样会破坏土地。”他说道,他还将单一种植形容为该地区的定时炸弹。

“如果再这样下去,二三十年后连草都很难长出来。榛子种在离海平面太近的地方也是一个问题,因为榛子需要更多的水和更多的养分才能够茁壮成长。”

克鲁恰内利说:“种植榛子好是好,但我们现在做得太过了。结局显而易见,除非我们采取行动来阻止,不然不会有什么好结果。”

与此同时,在提供给《财富》杂志的一份声明中,费列罗集团为“意大利榛子项目”计划辩护,称其为“农民实现种植多样化和/或重新转型的机会”,也可以“防止非耕种农地被遗弃”。

该集团表示:“我们借助这个项目开发了一种榛子种植方法,其基本原则是创造优质可持续的意大利榛子价值链。”(财富中文网)

译者:三叠瀑

A good-natured peasant recognizable by a chocolate-colored coat and three-cornered hat, the plump Gianduja, a theatrical character who hailed from the countryside near Turin, had predictable weaknesses for pretty girls, wine, and (perhaps above all) sweets. When most theaters in northern Italy scaled back or closed amid the Napoleonic wars in the early 1800s, Gianduja survived—after a transformation.

Before those military campaigns, Turin had been one of Europe’s chocolate capitals. But French naval blockades made cacao from South America scarce, and prices for essential raw materials skyrocketed. Around then, Turin’s chocolatiers began mixing the limited cacao they could get their hands on with hazelnuts, which were common in the area. The mixture created a thick paste that took its shape after being squeezed between two spoons, resembling a side of the chocolate-loving Gianduja’s tricorn hat. The treats became known as Giandujas.

Gianduja, the theater character, slowly fell out of fashion, even though the delicate sweets named for him are still sold in modest quantities in Italy, and in specialty shops further afield. But the chocolate-hazelnut combination they popularized went on to become a global phenomenon. You probably know it as Nutella.

Heavier than the Empire State Building

The numbers surrounding Nutella are staggering. Gruppo Ferrero, the company that makes Nutella, uses around a quarter of the world’s total supply of hazelnuts. According to the company, Nutella is now sold in 160 countries, and total annual production has topped 400,000 tons—more than the weight of the Empire State Building. If laid out side by side, the 770 million containers of Nutella Ferrero produces each year would circle the equator nearly twice.

Not surprisingly, those numbers are a major sweetener for the company’s bottom line. Ferrero’s revenues last year topped 12.3 billion ($14.5 billion), an 8% year-on-year increase. Locked down at home with nowhere to go, the world ate a lot of Nutella and Ferrero’s other sweets.

Meanwhile, profits topped 223 million, a slight increase over the previous year. (Those numbers are based on the company’s entire portfolio, which also includes Ferrero Rocher chocolates, Kinder chocolate eggs, and Tic Tac mints. But Nutella is the company’s most successful product.)

Now that the world is out of lockdown, the privately held Ferrero is using its muscle on the acquisition trail, buying U.K. cookie makers Fox’s Biscuits and Burton’s Biscuit Co. for a combined ?610 million ($840 million).

But that success is not without complications. Hazelnuts make up just 13% of the recipe for Nutella—sugar, palm oil, cocoa, and milk powder are the other key ingredients—but this ingredient is without a doubt the hardest part to come by.

Turkey is the world’s leading producer, but political issues and labor controversies in the country, including low wages and charges of child labor, create reputational risks for those procuring its hazelnuts. In late 2019, for example, the popular Italian nationalist politician Matteo Salvini, who many times had sung the praises of Nutella on social media, declared he would no longer buy the product because it used Turkish hazelnuts.

Italy’s climate, of course, is perfectly suited for hazelnuts. But the annual Italian yield runs a distant second among global hazelnut suppliers—not nearly enough to satisfy Ferrero’s needs. And even if it did, the company says, antitrust laws prevent it from simply gobbling up the majority of the country’s output.

Ferrero does not own or operate any hazelnut farms—a point that the company was quick to point out to Fortune—but it has run into a mountain of opposition for an initiative it backs called “Progetto Nocciola Italia.”

The Italian Hazelnut Project sounds like the kind of corporate sourcing initiative Nutella fans the world over would cheer—the company has set out guidelines for quality and sustainable hazelnut cultivation with an aim to ultimately increase Italy’s production by a third.

But many farmers see the three-year-old plan differently.

As the ravages of climate change intensify, scientists and conservationists the world over fear the incessant rise of monoculture crops—particularly corn, soy, and rice, but also wine grapes—favored by the agriculture industry and their biggest customers. It’s not just the lack of biodiversity scientists fear, but how such intensive farming practices can contribute to the degradation and loss of a natural ecosystem.

Last year, opposition to Ferrero’s Italian Hazelnut Project prompted a no-thank-you open letter from farmers and local political leaders titled “Progetto Nocciola Italia? No Grazie” that gained widespread media coverage in Italy. The letter said the “intensive cultivation of hazelnuts” was a threat to the “environment and biodiversity.” More damningly, the letter referred to new hazelnut fields as “open-pit mines with intensive monocultures, high environmental impacts…and frequent use of pesticide, fungicide, fertilizer, and herbicide treatments.”

Nuts as far as the eye can see

Not all farmers use such dramatic language to decry the program, but there is little doubt that the company’s insatiable appetite for hazelnuts is having far-reaching impacts in Italy’s three main hazelnut cultivation areas: north of Rome, south of Turin, and east of Naples. Farmers there say the strong demand is driving up prices for land, and limiting agricultural diversity.

“Ten years ago you used to see olives, grapes, peaches, chestnuts, growing between the plots of hazelnuts,” Cesare Mecarelli, a third-generation hazelnut farmer living near Viterbo, north of Rome, told Fortune. “Now it’s just hazelnuts as far as you can see.”

Mecarelli, whose farm is called Azienda Agricola Mecarelli, doesn’t sell the hazelnuts he grows to Ferrero or any other multinational (Italian pasta maker Barilla and Swiss chocolatier Nestlé are also big buyers in the area). Instead, he markets and sells his own hazelnut products, including a range of spreads containing from 40% to 100% hazelnuts.

He added he still has a few olive trees on his 30-hectare (75-acre) farm, though only enough to produce olive oil for family and friends. Mecarelli said he doesn’t blame others being drawn to hazelnut production: The plants, as far as most agronomists and farmers know, aren’t particularly susceptible to disease, and are fairly easy to grow. Even more so, the demand for quality hazelnuts is reliable with prices steadily climbing over time.

But, he admits, the hazelnut push is creating a noticeable market distortion.

“It doesn’t make economic sense to grow anything else around here,” Mecarelli said. “If you pull up a few hectares of hazelnuts to plant something else, you’ll end up working harder and earning less.”

Famiano Crucianelli, president of the Via Amerina bio-district that includes the hazelnut production area around Viterbo, is more critical. He said problems stem from monocultures and from production areas spreading beyond their natural limits, which includes slopes on volcanic soil at altitudes from about 300 to 600 meters (1,000 to 2,000 feet) above sea level.

“There are no problems with hazelnuts, per se. The problems come when there’s no variety, which is always bad for the land,” he said, before describing a kind of monoculture time bomb for the region.

“If we keep this up, in 20 or 30 years it’ll be difficult for even grass to grow. It’s also a problem when hazelnuts are planted too close to sea level, where they need a lot more water and more resources to thrive.

“What we have now is a good thing that’s gone on too far,” Crucianelli said. “It’s a predictable tale that, unless we do something to stop it, it will end badly.”

Meanwhile, in a statement provided to Fortune, Ferrero defends the Progetto Nocciola Italia initiative as “an opportunity for farmers to diversify and/or reconvert their activities,” as well as to “prevent noncultivated agricultural land from being abandoned.”

“Through our Progetto Nocciola Italia, we have developed an approach to hazelnut cultivation founded on the principle of creating a quality sustainable Italian hazelnut value chain,” the company says.

最新:
  • 热读文章
  • 热门视频
活动
扫码打开财富Plus App
##########
    <dfn id='TZI'><acronym></acronym></dfn><pre id='nANvB'><strike></strike></pre><sub id='rwWA'><nobr></nobr></sub>
    <base id='VO'><base></base></base>
    <base id='mu'><label></label></base>
    <blink></blink>
    <ol id='YyDLOBev'><sup></sup></ol><sub id='Wt'><del></del></sub>